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The Accessible Virtual Campus

Grounds, Physical Plant and Transportation

Drawing representing the grounds, physical plant, and transportation section of virtual campus.

A lot of information is available about universal design and the built environment. Maps, routes, greenspace, and transportation accessibility are also considerations.

See Instructional Methods and Media & Materials for guidelines to design accessible signs and materials in the offices that manage these services.

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Doorway AUDIT

How universally designed is that doorway? What are the correct measurements for an accessible doorway?

R2D2 Center at UW-Milwaukee

Doorway AUDIT  (Excel Document)

Doorway AUDIT Manual  (PDF File)

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Electronic Information Kiosk AUDIT

Use this AUDIT to determine how universally designed a kiosk is. This three part audit assesses accessibility, usability, and score.

R2D2 Center at UW-Milwaukee

Electronic Information Kiosk AUDIT  (Excel Document)

Electronic Information Kiosk Manual  (PDF File)

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Elevator AUDIT

Elevators are comprised of multiple features that must be considered for full accessibility. Use this AUDIT to determine how successful your elevators are at providing access and usability for all students, staff and faculty.

R2D2 Center at UW-Milwaukee

Elevator AUDIT  (Excel Document)

Elevator AUDIT Version 1-2 Manual  (PDF File)

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Service Contract Tips

This document contains tips for "contracting for services that work for everyone including people with disabilities". Check these tips to insure accessibility before contracting for services.

R2D2 Center at UW-Milwaukee

Service Contract Tips  (Word Document)

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Signage AUDIT

This AUDIT measures the accessibility of signage, including placement, font size, contrast and more. The AUDIT has three sections, including accessibility, usability, and a scoring sheet.

R2D2 Center at the U W-Milwaukee

Signage AUDIT  (Excel Document)

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Universal Design on Campus

A lecture from the ACCESS-ed Conference 2008 presented by Dr. Sheryl Burgstahler on the importance of Universal Design in Higher Education. This lecture digs deeper into what it means for a facility to be Universally Designed and steps that are required to reach that status.

1 of 6 (captioned) Universal Design of Physical Spaces  YouTube Video

1 of 6 (video described) Universal Design of Physical Spaces  YouTube Video

2 of 6 (captioned) Universal Design in the Planning Stage  YouTube Video

2 of 6 (video described) Universal Design in the Planning Stage  YouTube Video

3 of 6 (captioned) Planning for Accommodations  YouTube Video

3 of 6 (video described) Planning for Accommodations  YouTube Video

4 of 6 (captioned) Appearance in Universal Design  YouTube Video

4 of 6 (vid. described) Appearance in Universal Design  YouTube Video

5 of 6 (captioned) Defining the "Universe"  YouTube Video

5 of 6 (vid. described)Defining the "Universe"  YouTube Video

6 of 6 (captioned) Images Around the Facility  YouTube Video

6 of 6 (vid. described) Images Around the Facility  YouTube Video

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A Framework of Emergency Preparedness Guidelines For Federal Agencies- Accounting for the Needs of People with Disabilities

This link contains a comprehensive 84 page document. Critical questions list near the end guide examination of existing procedures. "In disaster management activities it is important to think about disability broadly. Traditional narrow definitions of disability are not appropriate. The term disability does not apply just to people whose disabilities are noticeable, such as wheelchair users and people who are blind or deaf." This document discribes how to get prepared for an emergency that includes people with disabilities.

Interagency Coordinating Council on Emergency Preparedness and Individuals with Disabilities

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A More Accessible Map

Is there a way to display text-based data on a map, keeping it accessible, useful, and visually attractive? Yes there is by using an accessible CSS-based map in which the underlying map data is separated from the visual layout. This web article explains, and gives an example for making web-based maps more accessible.

Duffy, S - "A List Apart"

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ABC's of the ADA

This company that specializes in adaptive pool & spa access has extracted the main points regarding pool lifts from the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, 36 CFR Parts 1190 and 1191 for your reference.

Aquatic Access Inc.

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About Detectable Warning Surfaces

Warning surfaces are “standardized surface feature built in or applied to walking surfaces or other elements to warn of hazards on a circulation path.” This website explains why these are necessary plus provides specifications, research reports, and recommendations.

Accessible Design for the Blind

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Access Map

An example of an approach of this institution to provide accessibility information to wheelchair users on their campus.

University of Minnesota Duluth

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Accessibility Requirements for Buildings

This article by the U.S. Department of Housing provides information on the housing accessibility requirements for both private and federally assisted housing.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

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Accessible Desks and Furniture

This webpage provides a list of desks and tables that follow ADA guidelines and meet accessibility standards. This page is provided to supply information and examples of universally designed furniture for buyers.

Accessible Environments, Inc.

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Accessible Landscapes - Designing for Inclusion

This website contians the Landscapes For All Project which was conceived in 1990 as a logical extension of the excellent work in park and playground access by the firm of Moore Iacofano Goltsman, Inc. This is a brief on-line source of concepts and drawing for Universal Design outdoor spaces.

The Accessible Landscapes Project

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Accessible Solutions from Bob Vila

This website page includes accessibility concerns from the work of Bob Vila (This Old House TV show). Many accessibility topics have "how to" videos.

Bob Vila

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Accessible Sports Facilities - ADAAG

This website provides general information regarding what types of facilities must comply with ADA requirements. This website also includes a brief, general synopsis of legal requirements for sport facilities, accessible routes, locker rooms, team seating areas, saunas, exercise equipment, shooting facilities, and bowling lanes.

US Access Board

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Accessible Swimming Pools and Spas

This website contains a comprehensive discussion of "specifications for elements within a swimming pool or spa to create a general level of usability for individuals with disabilities. Emphasis is placed on ensuring that individuals with disabilities are generally able to access swimming pools and spas and use a variety of elements."

Paralyzed Veterans of America

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ADA Best Practices Tool Kit for State and Local Governments

"The Tool Kit is designed to teach state and local government officials how to identify and fix problems that prevent people with disabilities from gaining equal access to state and local government programs, services, and activities. It will also teach state and local officials how to conduct accessibility surveys of their buildings and facilities to identify and remove architectural barriers to access."

US Department of Justice

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ADAAG Requirements for Detectable Warnings

This website contians a summary of the ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) for detectable warnings, a distinctive surface pattern of domes detectable by cane or underfoot, which are used to alert people with vision impairments of their approach to streets and hazardous drop-offs. (Last updated March 2008.)

ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG)

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 10: ENTRANCES AND EXITS (AREAS OF RESCUE ASSISTANCE)

This website provides a checklist that presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 11: DOORS AND GATES

The checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on doors and gates. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 12: BUILDING LOBBIES AND CORRIDORS (INTERIOR ACCESSIBLE ROUTE)

The checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on building lobbies and corridors. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 13: ELEVATORS

The checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on elevators. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 14: ROOMS AND SPACES

The checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on rooms and spaces. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 15: ASSEMBLY AREAS

The checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on assembly areas. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 16: TOILET ROOMS AND BATHROOMS

The checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on toilet rooms and bathrooms. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 17: BATHTUBS AND SHOWERS

This website provides a checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Department of Justice (DOJ), and the Access Board regulations implementing the ADA on bathtubs and showers. This checklists for bathtubs and showers addresses issues of entry, type of shower head, grab bars, clearance, public versus private use, common hazards, and many more.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 19: SIGNAGE

The checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on signage. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 1: PARKING

The checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA parking. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 20: ALARMS

This website provides a checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on alarms. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 21: DETECTABLE WARNINGS

This website provides a checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on detectable warnings. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 27: TRANSIENT LODGING [dormitories are in this category]

This website provides a checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on transient lodging. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 29A: TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES -- BUS STOPS

This website provides a checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on transportation facilities and bus stops. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 3: EXTERIOR ACCESSIBLE ROUTES

The checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on exterior accessible routes. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 5: DRINKING FOUNTAINS

This website provides a checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on drinking fountains. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 6: TELEPHONES

This website provides a checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on telephones. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 7: RAMPS

This website provides a checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on ramps. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 8: STAIRS

This website provides a checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on stairs. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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ADAAG SURVEY FORM 9: PLATFORM LIFTS

This website provides a checklist presents information in summary form on the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) regulations implementing the ADA on platform lifts. The checklist must be used with the DOT and DOJ regulations and ADAAG to ensure accuracy. This checklist is intended for technical assistance purposes only.

United States Access Board

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AgrAbility Assistive Technology Resources

This website provides a list of resources for specific accessibility issues per conditions and links to other resources. This website also provides a TOOLBOX, where visitors can search the toolbox for specific assistive technology solutions, products, techniques and ideas.

AgrAbility

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Americans with Disabilities Act and City Governments: Common Problems

This website explains the requirements of state and local governments for making all of civic life accessible to persons with disabilities.

U.S. Department of Justice

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Apartment Accessibility

This webpage includes an "AT Quick Reference" guide to help individuals adapt their apartment to become more accessible. There are also answers to frequently asked questions regarding tenant life, which range from ADA accommodations to easy modifications to make.

Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access (CATEA)

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Assistive Technology Fact Sheet for the Farm

This PDF describes assistive technology used on the farm. The material is organized into categories with examples of technology listed.

Ohio State University Extension, Ohio Agrability

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Assistive Technology in Argiculture

This PDF discusses the assistive technology in agriculture including tractor alterations, livestock, dairy, crop production, poultry and living spaces.

Virginia Cooperative Extension

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Automated Doors: Towards Universal  (Research based)

This article reports on research completed as part of a contract from the U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. The goals of the project were to complete a state of the art review on the subject of automated doors and develop recommendations for revising the ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) in light of the findings. These recommendations address both scoping criteria when and if automated doors should be required, and technical criteria how they should be designed if they are used in buildings.

The Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access

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Automatic Door Blooper

This short video demonstrates a poor application of automatic door accessibility considerations. The placement of operating buttons may fall within the minimal ADAAG standard, but is it really accessible? A service dog cannot "nose" the button to open the door. If a dog uses a paw to attempt to operate the button his nails scrape on the background surface (which in this case is metal), leading to scrape marks. How will a person with musculo-skeletal fare with this button?

R2D2 Center at UW-Milwaukee

Automatic Door Blooper  YouTube Video

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Bathroom Accommodations

This webpage includes an "AT Quick Reference" guide to help individuals adapt their bathrooms to be more accessible. This webpage answers frequently asked questions regarding the best ways to adapt the bathroom.

Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access (CATEA)

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Bedroom Accommodations

This webpage includes an "AT Quick Reference" guide to help individuals make accommodations to their bedroom and adapt their apartment to become more accessible. There are also answers to frequently asked questions regarding bedroom accommodations.

Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access (CATEA)

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Best Practices Design Guide-Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access

This website focuses on some of the emerging accessibility issues, design parameters that affect sidewalks, street crossing design, and operation. It provides recommendations on how to design sidewalks, street crossings, intersections, shared use paths, and recreational pedestrian trails. (Last updated 2001)

Beneficial Designs, Inc.

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Best Practices in Universal Design: A Global Review  (Research based)

This study reports codes and standards from both developed and developing countries, encompassing a wide geographical representation. "In order to determine the 'Best Practice' for the technical comparisons, an expert panel of internationally recognized leaders in the field of universal design and accessibility, selected the technical specifications that would meet the needs of the greatest number of users, while taking into consideration the practicality and cost of implementation."

Global Alliance on Accessible Technologies and Environments

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Classroom Acoustic Fact Sheet

This website provides links to free downloads of the ANSI/ASA standard plus two manuals for architects. Volume 1 is a design manual while volume 2 outlines key acoustical issues in learning. "Acoustical performance is an important consideration in the design of classrooms. Research indicates that levels of background noise and reverberation, little noticed by adults, adversely affect learning environments for young children, who require optimal conditions for hearing and comprehension." There are also additional resource links provided.

US Access Board with the Acoustical Society of America

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Communicating with Persons with Disabilities in a Multimodal Transit Environment

This website "describes current North American transit practice in information and communication technologies, as well as operations, implementation, and human factor issues. Attention is given to information and communication technologies related to planning, customer service, marketing, and training that can improve the travel experience for all persons traveling in a transit environment."

Transportation Research Board

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Disability Rights Laws Applicable to Student Housing

Disability rights laws applicable to student housing, including ADA, Architectural Barriers Act, FHA, and information pertaining to other local laws.

DBTAC Southwest ADA Center

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Ergonomic Workstations

This 8 question quiz tests your knowledge of ergonomics in the workplace. This website also provides products to accommodate a wide range of physical abilities and impairments. The developers of these products implement universal design in all of their work.

Humantech, Inc.

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Evacuation Preparedness Guide for People with Disabilities and Other Activity Limitations

Comprehensive guide to emergency preparedness for people with disabilities. "This guide focuses on people with disabilities and activity limitations successfully evacuating buildings. It's goal is to help you strengthen your evacuation preparedness."

Center for Disability Issues and the Health Professions

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Parking Technical Bulletin

This site is designed by a federal agency committed to accessible design. The United States Access Board answers commonly asked questions in relation to parking laws and guidelines.

United States Access Board

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Planning for Inclusion: Implementing an Accessibility Management Program in a Parks and Recreation Business Model

"Striving to deliver accessible recreation and leisure programs that exceed minimum accessibility standards is often difficult for professionals to implement. The literature is limited to ADA technical assistance manuals issued by the U.S. Department of Justice with few examples related to recreation". This 2008 pdf article describes best practices from the National Center on Accessibility, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Studies. The publication is based on a survey of national experts in accessibility and other relevant articles (some cited elsewhere on the ACCESS-ed website).

National Center on Accessibility, Indiana University

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Proposed Guidelines for Federal Outdoor Developed Areas

From the "Federal Register", June 20, 2007, "

Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board

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Providing Access to Beaches

This article from Access Today addresses why and how to provide access to beaches. This article also provides ways to make the beach accessible and reviews pros and cons to each adaptation.

The National Center on Accessibility

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Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee Final Report

The report is "a recommendation for a new national set of guidelines that define the details necessary to make the streetscapes in public rights-of-way accessible to all users. This report has been prepared by the Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee (PROWAAC), convened by the U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (the Access Board) to address access to public rights-of-way for people with disabilities."

US Access Board with the Acoustical Society of America

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Recycling for all: Preliminary criteria for the design of disability-friendly receptacles

This 6 page article discusses the problems with current waste bins in regards to accessibility for all people. The article also provides solutions and specific guidelines for a universally designed waste recepticle. It is an interesting article because it addresses something we use everyday but may take for granted; people with disabilities need to access trash and recycling bins, too!

Jensen and Nielsen, Waste Management and Research

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Scaleable Vector Graphics-Maps for People with Visual Impairment

In depth discussion/"how-to" with sources - books, conference proceedings, and web link. This website presents how Scaleable Vector Graphics increase "accessibility and interactivity to help people with visual impairment read audio-tactile maps."

SVG Conference

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Sidewalk Assessment Forms

This index list contains 9 different forms to evaluate all aspects of sidewalks, from bus stops, curb ramps and driveways to intersections and refuge islands. In order to access each pdf form you must click on each link. The forms include detailed schematics of characteristics and features including space to fill in information such as measurements.

Beneficial Designs, Inc

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Special Report: Accessible Public Rights-of-Way Planning and Design for Alterations

This 2007 document is available directly on line or in a PDF format. The document contains a report and recommendations for improving public rights-of-way.

Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee (PROWAAC)

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Technical Bulletin: Access to Telecommunication

This website contains guidelines for access to telecommunications. "The guidelines focus on establishing what equipment must be able to do, as opposed to specifying exactly how access is achieved, which will likely vary among different types of products." Structured as performance requirements, the guidelines detail the operating characteristics and product capabilities necessary for access."

US Access Board with the Acoustical Society of America

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The Americans with Disabilities Act Checklist for Readily Achievable Barrier Removal

This checklist (1995) will help you identify accessibility problems and solutions in existing facilities in order to meet your obligations under the ADA, however may be outdated with regard to specific updates in the law.

Barrier Free Environments, Inc. and Adaptive Environments Center, Inc.

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The Institute for Human Centered Design (IHCD)  (Research based)

Formerly know as Adaptive Environments, this is the website of an international non-governmental educational organization (NGO) committed to advancing the role of design in expanding opportunity and enhancing experience for people of all ages and abilities through excellence in design. IHCD’s work balances expertise in legally required accessibility with promotion of best practices in human-centered or universal design. The website offers resources, news, events, and a multi-disciplinary team of experts offering a full spectrum of design and consulting services.Design-for-All Foundation, European Union,

Supported in part by the Massachusetts Cultural Council.

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To Develop Maps for the Blind that are Created by the Blind

In this brief article, a graduate student from Kansas University draws on personal experience and faculty support in a comprehensive project to create tactile diagrams of campus.

Maines, S. in the Lawrence Journal-World & News

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Tools For Introducing Human-Centered Design

From the "Universal Design Education Online" website, in addition to available slide shows (you must register to access) there is a series of 6 "Universal Design Building Surveys". Survey #2 has parking & access.

Universal Design Education Online

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Trail Surfaces: What Do I Need to Know Now?

This article form Access Today focuses on the critical components of an accessible trail. The author then gives advice on how to meet all of these components depending on the type of trial.

The National Center on Accessibility-Indiana University

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Transit and the ADA: Frequently Asked Questions

This web page in on the site of the United States Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration. The Federal Transit Administration works to ensure nondiscriminatory transportation in support of our mission to enhance the social and economic quality of life for all Americans. The FTA Office of Civil Rights is responsible for civil rights compliance and monitoring to ensure nondiscriminatory provision of transit services.

US DOT, Federal Transit Administration

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Universal design in education: Principles and applications

This pdf provides a brief history of the concept of Universal Design and concisely describes each of the seven principles of Universal Design and gives an example as well. It provides “examples of universal design applications in educational settings: physical spaces, information technology (IT), instruction, and student services.”

Burgstahler, S. DO-IT

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Universal Design in the Workplace

This PDF document provides an overview of universal design for businesses and employment. Employers and business owners can get practical examples of universal design in a workplace.

Disability and Business Technical Assistance Center (DBTAC)

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Visual Alarms Technical Bulletin

Everything you want to know about visual alarms. A comprehensive guide to emergency warning systems from codes to practice, including definitions, requirments, and considerations.

US Access Board with the Acoustical Society of America

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Visualizer: universal design and drafting tools for accessibility on floor plans

A nifty set of tools that visually demonstrate wheelchair maneuverability on architectural plans. Disclaimer: This page is provided only to supply information/examples of adaptive exercise equipment. No endorsement of products or firms is intended, nor is criticism implied of those not included.

The ABC's of Accessibility ®

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Wayfinding Design: Hidden Barriers to Universal Access  (Research based)

This excellent article, in Implications, A Newsletter by InformeDesign, a website for design and human behavior research has very good recommendations regarding wayfinding. "Community settings must accommodate an increasingly diverse population, it is critical that they be designed to be as inclusive and universally accessible as possible, addressing the requirements of a wide range of physical, sensory, and cognitive abilities and needs."

"Wayfinding (the process individuals use to navigate in unfamiliar surroundings) is necessary to living one’s life and is something that most people do every day. Wayfinding information is instrumental in finding a desired destination."

InformeDesign, University of Minnesota

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What is GIS? Geographic Information Systems

Basics of GIS as background to accessible maps. "GIS is a broad field, requiring expertise in a range of areas ranging from cartography, systems administration, relational database management, programming and of course, spatial analysis."

GIS Lounge

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Whole Building Design Guide: Accessible

"The WBDG is the only web-based portal providing government and industry practitioners with one-stop access to up-to-date information on a wide range of building-related guidance, criteria and technology from a 'whole buildings' perspective. Currently organized into three major categories; Design Guidance, Project Management and Operations & Maintenance at the heart of the WBDG are Resource Pages, reductive summaries on particular topics." Their accessibility page delineates a comprehensive history of accessible building design with links, relevant codes & standards, and major resources. "Information in these Accessible pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality, high performance buildings."

Whole Building Design

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If you can't see things from a user's perspective, you can't make something accessible.

Centre for Inclusive Technology